Religion was the Mesopotamia frame of reference for understanding nature, society, and themselves; it dominated and inspired all other cultural expression and human activities.
Hence, the gods which were invisible to human eyes but omnipresent controlled the entire universe and everything in it. With the issue of finding an adequate source of water solved, the Sumerians turned their attention to increasing efficiency.
The middle class consisted of those who work for the King and the lower class were those who had no dependency on the King. The Mesopotamians made some impressive advances in mathematics.
Virtually, all scribes were men; but female scribes are at times mentioned in Mesopotamia writing. They believe that the position of the stars and planets revealed the will of the gods. Thus, despite its impressive achievements, Babylonian astronomy remained essentially a mythical interpretation of the universe.
When cities arose, there were too many people and goods to remember. By settling near these rivers the Sumerians were supplied with a source of water to irrigate dry fields.
In translating Sumerian words into the Akkadian language, they compiled what was probably the first dictionary. As was consistent with their religious world view, the Mesopotamians believed that disease was caused by gods or demons.
Ancient Mesopotamia was located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Fertile Crescent, which today is known as modern Iraq. Firstly, religion lay at the center of Mesopotamia life. They also imported copper from the Persian Gulf, precious metals, and ivory.
Noble women in particular were literate.
The second characteristic which shows the civilization of the Sumerians was their ability to create progress in agricultural skills and techniques. This shows how the Sumerian society regarded government as an essential part of their emerging society.
Furthermore, the Babylonians created the emergence of astronomy by fist observing the positions of planets and the constellation of stars, and devised a calendar based on the cycles of the moon.
Not only did they settle between the rivers, they also settled in the most useful areas within this settlement. With the increased efficiency and ability to irrigate fields, came a surplus of grain beyond day to day needs. Also, the Sumerians created narrow breaches in the levees which allowed them to change the flow of water.
This also allowed the Sumerians to have free time to develop new skills to continue to further their society. A culture must present distinct social classes within their society to be defined as civilized, as is shown by the Sumerian society. This not only provided protection, but also created fertile, easily drained, irrigated and cultivated fields.
Business transactions had to be recorded in writing, and severe punishments were imposed for dis- honesty. With this came the development of the ox-drawn plough. Enterprising businessman set up trading outposts in distant lands, making the Mesopotamia pioneers in international trade. They built their towns on top of levees or raised embankments.
The Sumerians had four classes, the top class, middle class, low class and the slave population. Sargon I unified all city states and made the official language of Sumer; Akkadian.Essay on Mesopotamia- Cradle of Civilization Mesopotamia is the Greek word for the land between the rivers.
It was in the valleys of the Tigris and the Euphrates that the first civilization began. Taking a Look at Egypt and Mesopotamia Essay - Two of the earliest and greatest civilizations, Mesopotamia and Egypt, show the transition from a Paleolithic society into a settled civilization.
Mesopotamia. The civilization known as the Sumerians, developed in the Mesopotamia era, are considered to be the first culture to become civilized. As the Sumerians settled in Mesopotamia, a class structure gradually took shape which /5(1).
Around B. C the world’s first civilization was established in southern Mesopotamia, and the people who did so were known as ‘Sumerians. ’ The Sumerians were the first great civilization to utilize the overabundance of resources that Mesopotamia had to offer.
Sep 21, · Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Israel are all important to the history of the world because of religious, social, political and economic development. In the first civilization, both Mesopotamia and Egypt relied on a hunter-gatherer economic system, during that time, every country in the world strived on it.
The ancient civilizations are Mesopotamia, Egypt and India that emerged by the banks of rivers Tigris and Euphrates, Nile and Indus and are also known as river civilizations. Mesopotamia and Egypt are considered the earliest civilizations due to the development of human society before Indus Valley Civilization.Download